This page shows construction details for making the A structure with open wood-framed roofs, often latticed and supported by regularly spaced posts or columns, and covered by climbing plants such as vines or roses, shading a walk or passageway. Pergolas are distinguished from “arbors,” which are less extensive in extent and structure. frame along with variations on how to To secure with nails or screws. the pergola roof frame to the The part of the roof which extends beyond the exterior side wall. The projecting lower edge of a roof where the gutters are located. The eaves are made up of both the soffit (covering for underside of an overhang) and the fascia (A horizontal trim fixed to the ends of the roof rafters). or house.
About Any of the framing wood. sizes.
The lumber sizes referred to in this project are the nominal sizes. The The rough-sawn size of a piece of lumber. Before the lumber is surfaced, planed or dressed. The nominal size is usually greater than the actual dimension. e.g. 100x50 (2 x 4) actually equals 90x45 (1 1/2" x 3 1/2"). of a piece of lumber is the size of the lumber before it is See Dressed./dressed or seasoned and is the size generally referred to when purchasing from the lumber yard. The The finished (dressed) size as opposed to the nominal size of a piece of wood., or Surfaced; planed; smooth; even surface; gauged. size of the lumber will be less than the nominal size so please make necessary allowances. For example, a piece of 100×50 (2×4) lumber when dressed may be 90×45 (1 1/2″x 3 1/2″) actual size.
STEP 1: The footings and posts.
Dig five A base (in or on the ground) that will support the structure. holes 350×350 (14″x14″) and 500 (20″) deep. Refer to flat plan for hole positions. Max The horizontal distance between supporting structures. between any two posts must be no more than 2400mm (8ft)
Place at least 100mm (4″) thick pad of A mixture of sand, gravel, water and cement which hardens to a stone like condition when dry. at the bottom of the footing holes, place the posts in position and fill the footing holes up with concrete. Check the posts for Vertical; Upright. (Plumb, upright.), To make rigid. if necessary and leave till concrete sets.
STEP 2: The finish materials in a building, such as narrow boards applied around openings (window trim, door trim) and vertical corner battens. the posts
Trim the top of the 5 posts at the desired height. Refer to the cross-section plan.
Work out the height of the top of the posts in relation to the required Structural member of a roof that supports the roof load and runs from the ridge to the top of the side walls. Of roof; Pitch; The incline angle of a roof surface..
The fall should be at least 10 degrees (1 in 5.7) if possible.
In this example, trim the top of the posts off 316mm (12 1/2″) below the highest point of the underside of the rafter. (see drawing).
STEP 3: The A supporting member.
Check out the top of each see PILE for the beam by marking a Parallel to the horizon, flat, level. line 200mm (8″) down from the top outside edge of each post.
Cut along the pencil mark with a power saw to a depth of 50mm (2″) (the thickness of the beam) Do this to all posts. Scribe a line 50mm (2″) in from the outside edge of each post from the top, down 200mm (8″). Cut down that line using a sharp handsaw.
A metal rod that has a head on one end and threads on the other and is used to fasten together lumber. The most common bolts used or referred to in projects within this website are coach/carriage bolts and hex bolts. the 200×50 (2×8) beam to the posts using m12 (1/2″) Covered with a protective coating of zinc. bolts and washers. (see diagram). Ensure all posts are plumb (vertical) and Being of equal distance from each other at all points.
STEP 4: The ledger The top or bottom horizontal framing member of the wall.
In this example the ledger plate is bolted to the The top horizontal board cappingCovering the top ends of the rafters. just below the spouting.
Sometimes this is not possible due to lack of free Exterior horizontal visible flat front trim board that caps the rafter tail ends. A piece of sawn, or dressed lumber of greater width than thickness. Usually 19mm (3/4") to 38mm (1 1/2") thick and 75mm (3") or more wide. or fixing area below the spouting in which case the ledger plate will have to be fixed to the house wall beneath the eaves.
SCENARIO (1) FIXING TO THE FASCIA BOARD
Mark a level line just below the spouting. Use a Tool used to ensure surfaces are level or plumb by means of a bubble in a tube of liquid fitted to the level. or a water level .
Fix the ledger plate to the level line on the fascia board using Are round headed bolts with square shoulders that resist rotation when located or driven into place. They can be called coach bolts or carriage bolts depending on which part of the world you live in. The head end of the bolt does not need a washer, but the other end of the bolt (the nut end) usually does. screw at least every 1200mm (48″) apart, penetrating through the fascia board and into solid timber, usually the end of a roof rafter or eaves Tool used to ensure surfaces are level or plumb by means of a bubble in a tube of liquid fitted to the level..
SCENARIO (2) FIXING TO THE HOUSE WALL. \
Mark a level line just below the eaves. Use a spirit level or a water level . Fix the ledger plate to the level line with coach screws penetrating through the The exterior surface of a building. and into the studs (house frame uprights) or lintels (beams above windows and doors). Seal around coach screws with weatherproof silicone A pliable substance used to seal a surface to prevent passage of a liquid..
If the wall is masonry (concrete, brick, Blocking. A pieces of wood that runs between other members (studs, joists, rafters) to provide support, add strength and/or act as a solid support between panel joins.) fix the ledger plate to the wall using masonry anchors every 1200mm. Before fixing, place DPC (Damp Proof Course) between the ledger plate and the wall.
STEP 5: Rafters, purlins, fascia and brace
Cut the rafters to length and angle cut each end to suit. Work out the rafter length to suit the roof sheets if possible (so as the roof sheets wont need cutting). In this example cut the rafters 2280mm (91 1/4″) long for 2400 (96″) roof sheets. Thus ledger 50mm (2″) + rafter 2280mm (91 1/4″) + fascia 20mm (3/4″) + roof overhang 50mm (2″) = 2400mm (96″)
Refer to the plans for reference if necessary.
Fix the rafters @ 750crs (30″ On center; (See CENTERS)) that is, spaced every 750mm (30″) apart, to the ledger with One of a series of parallel members used to support the floor. Part of the framing that provides the structure for a floor. hangers and to the beam with skew nails (nails angled in, toe nailed) and angle clips or Z nails. Ensure the rafters are square, at right angles to the building.
Fix four rows of 100×50 (2×4) nogs on edge in-between the rafters as in the flat plan These are the nogs (purlins) that the roofing is fixed to.
Fix the top row of nogs (purlins) 100mm (4″) down from the top of the rafters and fix the bottom row of nogs (purlins) 100mm (4″) up from the end of the rafters.
Fix the other two rows of nogs (purlins) equal distance apart.
Alternatively the purlins can be fixed on top of the rafters if there is enough room between the top of the rafters and the eaves.
Fix fascia board along the end of the rafters and also up the sides of the two end rafters (Exterior visible flat trim board that follows the rake of the roof.).
Brace on top of the frame diagonally from corner to corner with Short lengths of metal strap 25×1 (1/16×1) used to fix members together to resist uplift. brace. see flat plan.